Collar Betterlife Casual Round Sweatshirt Long Sleeve Loose Pullover Printing Red Cat qGBeDI Collar Betterlife Casual Round Sweatshirt Long Sleeve Loose Pullover Printing Red Cat qGBeDI Collar Betterlife Casual Round Sweatshirt Long Sleeve Loose Pullover Printing Red Cat qGBeDI Collar Betterlife Casual Round Sweatshirt Long Sleeve Loose Pullover Printing Red Cat qGBeDI Collar Betterlife Casual Round Sweatshirt Long Sleeve Loose Pullover Printing Red Cat qGBeDI Collar Betterlife Casual Round Sweatshirt Long Sleeve Loose Pullover Printing Red Cat qGBeDI
Waterfall Miss Womens Full Open Blue Front Navy KneeLong Chase Solid Sleeve Shrug R9ozuW1t

Collar Betterlife Casual Round Sweatshirt Long Sleeve Loose Pullover Printing Red Cat qGBeDI

January 29, 2018

How can you take a system with thousands of years of history and screw it up?  Easy.  Keep improving it until it does not work.  Babylonians used it. Egyptians used it. Greeks used it.  Romans used it ( Photograph 1 ).  Everyone used it…and everyone uses it.  But it sure has changed and what we put it over sure has changed.

Formal Footfit Mens Shoes Tan lUJUF2OOE
applied over Roman brick.  Minor issue with Mount Vesuvius in 79 A.D.

Over several millennia [1]  stucco has gone from lime-based to lime-Portland cement-based to Portland cement-based to polymer modified….and each step of the way it has gotten stronger…and less vapor permeable .

Traditional lime based stucco

Sweatshirt Pullover Long Printing Sleeve Cat Loose Collar Casual Red Betterlife Round LQ16USj Greater than 20 perms

Lime-Portland cement based stucco

5 to 10 perms

Portland cement based stucco

1 to 5 perms

Polymer modified stucco

Less than 1 perm Casual Printing Cat Sweatshirt Sleeve Long Red Betterlife Round Collar Loose Pullover UNTVBr  

This has had huge consequences.  Duh.  When walls get wet they can’t Sweatshirt Plain Campus Sutra Women dZ5Bz
.  They used to be able to.  Today?  Not so much.

Traditional lime based stucco was three layers: scratch coat, brown coat and Round Sleeve Casual Sweatshirt Pullover Loose Long Betterlife Cat Collar Printing Red ZunyR0r finish coat ( Figure 1 ).  Each successive layer to the exterior was more vapor open than the layer it covered.  Yup.  Old timers had it dialed in.  Today? Not so much.

Mens Shoes 001 RC1341A Formal Red Chief Leather Black FC4SDzbJ
 ( Grey Ajile By Pants Track Womens Pantaloons VdD7ZGor
).  The older stucco tinker-toys had larger “voids” than newer tinkertoys.  Water molecules could move through the older stucco tinkertoys more easily than the newer tinkertoys.  But all of the tinkertoys could be pulled apart pretty easily.  So what to do?  Ah, add another tinkertoy inside the voids of the original tinkertoy ( Figure 3 ).  The new tinkertoy has tensile strength that now compliments the original tinkertoy that had the good compressive strength.  Good news.  Except now the voids are much smaller because of this new tinkertoy taking up much of the space in the voids of the original tinkertoy.  The water molecules don’t move so easily any more.  Welcome to polymer modification. [3]

Loose Sleeve Betterlife Round Sweatshirt Pullover Red Long Cat Printing Casual Collar t5HIkkIU Figure 2: Stucco Tinkertoy  - The older stucco tinker-toys had larger “voids” than newer tinkertoys.  Water molecules could move through the older stucco tinkertoys more easily than the newer tinkertoys. 


Figure 3: Polymer Modified Tinkertoy  - Another tinkertoy inside the voids of original tinkertoy.  This new tinkertoy has tensile strength that now compliments the original tinkertoy that had the good compressive strength.  Good news.  Except now the voids are much smaller because of this new tinkertoy taking up much of the space in the voids of the original tinkertoy.

The new recipe does not always follow the old rules laid out in  Figure 1 .  Sometimes the finish coat and brown coat are less permeable than the scratch coat depending on what is added and how much.  Oops. [4]

We used to put the stucco over brick and stone.  If things got wet so what?  Nothing to rot.  And the walls were not insulated.  Lots of Round Casual Betterlife Collar Pullover Sweatshirt Red Loose Printing Sleeve Long Cat JurQ1jx5 energy flow.  Lots of energy available for drying.  Lots of drying.  Life was good.  Then we started to put stucco over wood.  Wood rots.  But it does not rot unless you get it real wet for a long time.  We didn’t get the wood real wet for a long time.  And more importantly it was real wood.  And we didn’t insulate the walls.  Lots of drying available even if the real wood got real wet.  We learned to put the stucco over building paper to reduce the water entry.  Life was still good.

Then we did three things.  We stopped using real wood.  We insulated…a lot.  And we stopped putting the stucco over building paper. 

We went from woven branches Round Red Betterlife Printing Pullover Loose Sleeve Collar Long Sweatshirt Cat Casual UIZVG [5]  to board sheathing .  Then from board sheathing to Pullover Round Long Casual Cat Collar Loose Betterlife Sleeve Printing Sweatshirt Red k1pLnLW plywood .  Then finally from plywood to oriented strand board (OSB ).  We were here before ( “The Evolution of Walls”, ASHRAE   Journal,  June 2009 ).  We increased the strength of the substrate and increased constructability.  But we reduced permeance and therefore drying and we reduced the ability of penetrating water to be redistributed and we increased the moisture sensitivity of substrate.  We were also here before ( ”Inward Drive – Outward Drying, ASHRAE Journal, June 2017 ).  None of this was good.

We then insulated.  And we insulated.  And insulated some more.  This reduced the ability of the assemblies to dry when they got wet.  A poorly insulated wall sheathed with plywood covered with building paper and stucco could get wet and dry before real damage occurred.  A well-insulated wall sheathed with OSB covered with building paper and Portland cement based-stucco…not so much. 

Could we make it worse?  Yes, of course.  We can improve building papers.  We could make them dimensionally stable.  When building papers (aka “water resistive barriers” wrb’s) were hygroscopic they expanded and contracted and stucco did not bond effectively to them ( Round Red Printing Collar Sleeve Long Loose Pullover Sweatshirt Cat Betterlife Casual x6B1Hn Figure 4 ).  Manufacturers of building papers began to make them more hydrophobic and dimensionally stable.  How could this be bad?  We began to get the stucco bonding to building paper.  When stucco bonds to building paper the building paper loses water repellency and its ability to drain ( Photograph 2 ).  Could we make it worse?  Yes, of course.  We could develop “plastic” wrb’s that are even more dimensionally stable so the stucco bond is even more robust and the material even more sensitive to loss of water repellency.

Figure 4: Dimensionally Unstable Building Paper  - When building papers (aka “water resistive barriers” wrb’s) were hygroscopic they expanded and contracted and stucco did not bond effectively to them. 

 

Photograph 2: Stucco Bonded to Building Paper  - When stucco bonds to building paper the building paper loses water repellency and its’ ability to drain.

It all came together in Vancouver in the 1990’s and we almost rotted that great city to the ground.  Low permeance stucco, high thermal resistance wall assemblies, OSB sheathing and dimensionally stable wrb’s. [6]   You could tell you were in Vancouver based on the number of tarps and scaffolding covering the rotting buildings ( Photograph 3  and  Printing Loose Red Long Betterlife Pullover Collar Sweatshirt Casual Round Cat Sleeve SKOcyxejsU Photograph 4 ). 

 

Photograph 3: Vancouver Condo  – Classic building design.  Folks tried to blame the lack of overhangs… 

 

Photograph 4: Vancouver Tarp  - You could tell you were in Vancouver based on the number tarps and scaffolding covering the rotting buildings.

The images were dramatic….“crying” Vancouver stucco ( Photograph 5 )…stucco bonded to plastic wrb’s ( Photograph 6 )….and rotting OSB behind plastic wrb’s ( Photograph 7 ).   We should have paid attention.  Vancouver happened first because of the exposure and because the changes to thermal resistance and material properties happened early.

Stretchable Mens BUKKL Slim Jeans Blue Fit 3onPyUcT8
) then on regular wood frame low rise ( Boys Sportty Athletico Wear Lounging Shorts Mens HAP Beach Casual oZANm
).

Cat Red Round Loose Sweatshirt Betterlife Sleeve Pullover Collar Printing Casual Long tnDdBjVA9d Photograph 8: Multistory Wood Frame  - Things began to move south and east.  First on the multistory wood frame buildings because the rain exposure increases with height.

Photograph 9: Wood Frame Low Rise  – Even though the exposure is less on low rise they are not immune.

It became clear that there were issues with wrb’s behind stucco and the first intervention was to use two layers – an outer layer that would act as a bond break and an inner layer that was the “true” wrb ( Figure 5 ).  Unfortunately this was not enough. 

 

Round Sweatshirt Sleeve Red Long Betterlife Cat Printing Pullover Casual Loose Collar iTpXm1UC Figure 5: Bond Break  - It became clear that there were issues with wrb’s and the first intervention was to use two layers – an outer layer that would act as a bond break and an inner layer that was the “true” wrb.

The assemblies needed enhanced drainage and enhanced drying.  One of the more effective means of accomplishing both is to provide a drainage matt between the bond break and the wrb ( Figure 6 ).  We have learned this on the multistory wood frame buildings ( Photograph 10  and  Photograph 11 ).  We learned it on the multistory wood frame buildings first because they began to experience the problems first.

Shoes Brown Men Formal Lee Cooper jORwwzkh
material”, IRC MEWS, Ottawa, 2007.

Straube, J., “Building science for strawbale buildings”, Building Science Digest – 112,  www.buildingscience.com , 2009.


[2]  Tinkertoys were invented in 1914 by Charles Pajeau to enable future engineers to understand materials science.  Pajeau was a stonemason.  It doesn’t get better than this….

Fit Slim LAWMAN Mens PG3 Jeans 6aVlAV
 Apologies to real material scientists and chemical engineers for this over simplification of the real world.

[4]  Not good when you are on the coast of a big body of water with salt in it….salt solution gets in…phase change happens…salt gets left behind…osmosis…fun…blisters…bond failure…

[5]  Wattle and daub

[6]  Vancouver also had interior polyethylene vapor barriers that completely eliminated any interior drying.  Made it worse.  But even if there had been no poly the buildings were doomed….it just would have taken a little longer….

Sweatshirt Cat Printing Round Collar Loose Long Casual Betterlife Red Pullover Sleeve Wt7GLNC
Download (1.21 MB)

Description

  • Material: Cotton
  • Color: Yellow, Red
  • Type: Sweatshirt
  • Style: Pullover
  • Season: Spring And Autumn
  • Collar: Round Collar
  • Sleeve Length: Long Sleeve
  • Clothing Length: Regular
  • Accent: Animal Print
  • Occasion: Casual
  • Package Content: 1 X Women Sweatshirt
  • Garment Care: Hand-wash and Machine washable
  • Size: There are 2 sizes (L/XL) available for the following listing. please allow 1-2cm differs due to manual measurement, thanks (All measurement in cm and please note 1cm=0.39inch)
  • Due to different factories come into different SIZE standard, please refer your measurement from our Size Guide, not the tag comes with products. the color of the actual item may vary slightly from the above images, thanks for your understanding.
Product Code
APPCAT-PRINTINGBETT5680958836327
Color
Red
Size
L
Material
Cotton
Gender
Women
International Product
World Store