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January 29, 2018

How can you take a system with thousands of years of history and screw it up?  Easy.  Keep improving it until it does not work.  Babylonians used it. Egyptians used it. Greeks used it.  Romans used it ( Womens Sports Tights Admiral Lunan znCR77
).  Everyone used it…and everyone uses it.  But it sure has changed and what we put it over sure has changed.

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applied over Roman brick.  Minor issue with Mount Vesuvius in 79 A.D.

Over several millennia [1]  stucco has gone from lime-based to lime-Portland cement-based to Portland cement-based to polymer modified….and each step of the way it has gotten stronger…and less vapor permeable .

Traditional lime based stucco

Camo Shorts Camouflage Combat 36 Grey Men Army s Cargo Camouflage HeaJb Greater than 20 perms

Lime-Portland cement based stucco

5 to 10 perms

Portland cement based stucco

1 to 5 perms

Polymer modified stucco

Less than 1 perm Cargo Combat s 36 Army Camouflage Camo Grey Shorts Men Camouflage DKrH5Q8  

This has had huge consequences.  Duh.  When walls get wet they can’t Jeans Low Mens Slim Rise Jeans Pepe Blue Fit c7KMjBv
.  They used to be able to.  Today?  Not so much.

Traditional lime based stucco was three layers: scratch coat, brown coat and Army Cargo Combat Men Camouflage Camouflage Grey 36 Shorts Camo s HhpBupI finish coat ( Figure 1 ).  Each successive layer to the exterior was more vapor open than the layer it covered.  Yup.  Old timers had it dialed in.  Today? Not so much.

 

Figure 1: Traditional Stucco  - Each successive layer to the exterior was more vapor open than the layer it covered.  Yup.  Old timers had it dialed in.  Today? Not so much.

Stucco historically had good compressive strength but not very good tensile strength.  As we have manipulated the stucco “recipe” over the years, compressive strength has gotten better.  And over the years so has tensile strength.  To that end we have added cow dung, egg whites, pigs blood and finally polymers to the recipe.  The “key” to the recipe is to create a strong “tinkertoy” [2]  ( Figure 2 ).  The older stucco tinker-toys had larger “voids” than newer tinkertoys.  Water molecules could move through the older stucco tinkertoys more easily than the newer tinkertoys.  But all of the tinkertoys could be pulled apart pretty easily.  So what to do?  Ah, add another tinkertoy inside the voids of the original tinkertoy ( Women School High Mini Pleated Girl Skirt Skirts Tennis L Summer Shorts Skater Blue Waist New Z2kOWM
).  The new tinkertoy has tensile strength that now compliments the original tinkertoy that had the good compressive strength.  Good news.  Except now the voids are much smaller because of this new tinkertoy taking up much of the space in the voids of the original tinkertoy.  The water molecules don’t move so easily any more.  Welcome to polymer modification. [3]

36 Grey Shorts Camouflage Camo Army Men s Cargo Combat Camouflage 0DnTJR Figure 2: Stucco Tinkertoy  - The older stucco tinker-toys had larger “voids” than newer tinkertoys.  Water molecules could move through the older stucco tinkertoys more easily than the newer tinkertoys. 


Figure 3: Polymer Modified Tinkertoy  - Another tinkertoy inside the voids of original tinkertoy.  This new tinkertoy has tensile strength that now compliments the original tinkertoy that had the good compressive strength.  Good news.  Except now the voids are much smaller because of this new tinkertoy taking up much of the space in the voids of the original tinkertoy.

The new recipe does not always follow the old rules laid out in  Figure 1 .  Sometimes the finish coat and brown coat are less permeable than the scratch coat depending on what is added and how much.  Oops. [4]

We used to put the stucco over brick and stone.  If things got wet so what?  Nothing to rot.  And the walls were not insulated.  Lots of Shorts Combat Camouflage Camo Grey s 36 Army Men Camouflage Cargo 1Xfs4tjAnO energy flow.  Lots of energy available for drying.  Lots of drying.  Life was good.  Then we started to put stucco over wood.  Wood rots.  But it does not rot unless you get it real wet for a long time.  We didn’t get the wood real wet for a long time.  And more importantly it was real wood.  And we didn’t insulate the walls.  Lots of drying available even if the real wood got real wet.  We learned to put the stucco over building paper to reduce the water entry.  Life was still good.

Then we did three things.  We stopped using real wood.  We insulated…a lot.  And we stopped putting the stucco over building paper. 

We went from woven branches Camouflage Army 36 Shorts Men Grey Combat Camouflage s Cargo Camo QTYDmSz [5]  to board sheathing .  Then from board sheathing to Shorts Camouflage Camouflage s Camo Grey Army Cargo Combat 36 Men z6xSEO2 plywood .  Then finally from plywood to oriented strand board (OSB ).  We were here before ( “The Evolution of Walls”, Shirt ColorPlus Fit Tailored Cotton Orange Medium 6q4ycp
  Journal,  June 2009 ).  We increased the strength of the substrate and increased constructability.  But we reduced permeance and therefore drying and we reduced the ability of penetrating water to be redistributed and we increased the moisture sensitivity of substrate.  We were also here before ( ”Inward Drive – Outward Drying, ASHRAE Journal, June 2017 ).  None of this was good.

We then insulated.  And we insulated.  And insulated some more.  This reduced the ability of the assemblies to dry when they got wet.  A poorly insulated wall sheathed with plywood covered with building paper and stucco could get wet and dry before real damage occurred.  A well-insulated wall sheathed with OSB covered with building paper and Portland cement based-stucco…not so much. 

Could we make it worse?  Yes, of course.  We can improve building papers.  We could make them dimensionally stable.  When building papers (aka “water resistive barriers” wrb’s) were hygroscopic they expanded and contracted and stucco did not bond effectively to them ( Camo Grey Men Cargo Camouflage 36 Combat Army Shorts Camouflage s wTWyPg Figure 4 ).  Manufacturers of building papers began to make them more hydrophobic and dimensionally stable.  How could this be bad?  We began to get the stucco bonding to building paper.  When stucco bonds to building paper the building paper loses water repellency and its ability to drain ( Photograph 2 ).  Could we make it worse?  Yes, of course.  We could develop “plastic” wrb’s that are even more dimensionally stable so the stucco bond is even more robust and the material even more sensitive to loss of water repellency.

Figure 4: Dimensionally Unstable Building Paper  - When building papers (aka “water resistive barriers” wrb’s) were hygroscopic they expanded and contracted and stucco did not bond effectively to them. 

 

Photograph 2: Stucco Bonded to Building Paper  - When stucco bonds to building paper the building paper loses water repellency and its’ ability to drain.

It all came together in Vancouver in the 1990’s and we almost rotted that great city to the ground.  Low permeance stucco, high thermal resistance wall assemblies, OSB sheathing and dimensionally stable wrb’s. [6]   You could tell you were in Vancouver based on the number of tarps and scaffolding covering the rotting buildings ( Photograph 3  and  Camouflage s Men Cargo Camo Combat Camouflage 36 Shorts Grey Army gvuJC5PHEm Photograph 4 ). 

 

Photograph 3: Vancouver Condo  – Classic building design.  Folks tried to blame the lack of overhangs… 

 

Photograph 4: Vancouver Tarp  - You could tell you were in Vancouver based on the number tarps and scaffolding covering the rotting buildings.

The images were dramatic….“crying” Vancouver stucco ( Photograph 5 )…stucco bonded to plastic wrb’s ( Photograph 6 )….and rotting OSB behind plastic wrb’s ( Jeans Mens Highly Distressed and Light Blue Patched Estrolo lItwQaiGkU
).   We should have paid attention.  Vancouver happened first because of the exposure and because the changes to thermal resistance and material properties happened early.

Photograph 5: More Vancouver  – “Crying” stucco.

Photograph 6: Still More Vancouver  – Stucco bonded to plastic wrb.

Photograph 7: Vancouver End Game  – Rotting OSB behind plastic wrb.

Then things began to move south and east.  First on the multistory wood frame buildings because the rain exposure increases with height ( Photograph 8 ) then on regular wood frame low rise ( Photograph 9 ).

Camouflage s Men Camo Camouflage Shorts 36 Combat Army Cargo Grey XkRTZO Photograph 8: Multistory Wood Frame  - Things began to move south and east.  First on the multistory wood frame buildings because the rain exposure increases with height.

Photograph 9: Wood Frame Low Rise  – Even though the exposure is less on low rise they are not immune.

It became clear that there were issues with wrb’s behind stucco and the first intervention was to use two layers – an outer layer that would act as a bond break and an inner layer that was the “true” wrb ( Figure 5 ).  Unfortunately this was not enough. 

 

Cargo Men Army Camo Shorts Combat Camouflage s Grey Camouflage 36 weR12X Figure 5: Bond Break  - It became clear that there were issues with wrb’s and the first intervention was to use two layers – an outer layer that would act as a bond break and an inner layer that was the “true” wrb.

The assemblies needed enhanced drainage and enhanced drying.  One of the more effective means of accomplishing both is to provide a drainage matt between the bond break and the wrb ( Figure 6 ).  We have learned this on the multistory wood frame buildings ( Photograph 10  and  Photograph 11 ).  We learned it on the multistory wood frame buildings first because they began to experience the problems first.

   

Figure 6: Drainage and Drying Gap  - The assemblies needed enhanced drainage and enhanced drying.  One of the more effective means of accomplishing both is to provide a drainage matt between the bond break and the wrb.

 

Photograph 10: Multistory Wood Frame Done Right  - We learned to do it correctly on the multistory wood frame buildings first because they began to experience the problems first. 

 

Photograph 11: Drainage and Drying Gap  – Plastic wrb covered with a drainage mat with an integral bond break.

So what do we need to do?  Easy.  Provide a 3/8 inch air space behind stucco installed over OSB sheathing in regions where it rains more than 20 inches per year.  That’s it.

Things are getting worse.  But things have to get intolerably bad before we change.  We didn’t learn from Vancouver.  I predict that they are going to get intolerably bad sooner than later.  The stucco-pocalypse is coming.

 

References

Mukhopadhyaya, P., Kumaran, K., Plescia, S., Lackey, J., Normandin, N., and van Reenen, D., “Development of high performance stucco as cladding material”, IRC MEWS, Ottawa, 2007.

Straube, J., “Building science for strawbale buildings”, Building Science Digest – 112,  www.buildingscience.com , 2009.


Camouflage s Shorts Camouflage Cargo Men Camo Combat Army 36 Grey HKCBv [1]  ”kiloyears” Yes, this is a valid term.  Who knew?

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 Tinkertoys were invented in 1914 by Charles Pajeau to enable future engineers to understand materials science.  Pajeau was a stonemason.  It doesn’t get better than this….

[3]  Apologies to real material scientists and chemical engineers for this over simplification of the real world.

[4]  Not good when you are on the coast of a big body of water with salt in it….salt solution gets in…phase change happens…salt gets left behind…osmosis…fun…blisters…bond failure…

[5]  Wattle and daub

[6]  Vancouver also had interior polyethylene vapor barriers that completely eliminated any interior drying.  Made it worse.  But even if there had been no poly the buildings were doomed….it just would have taken a little longer….

Description

Features:

Style: Casual

Style: Overalls

Pants: Straight type

Long pants: Pants

Waist type: Waist

Are there belt: No Belt

Pants placket: zipper cardigan

Thickness: General

For the season: Summer

Whether the stock: Yes

Listed year / season: Spring 2016

Fabric name: Cotton

Main Fabric: Cotton

Fabric main component content: 60 (%)

Style details: Multi-pocket

Made of: Cotton

Color: Green camouflage, Yellow camouflage, Camouflage gray

Size: 29,30,32,34,36,38,40,42

Size chart(1inch=2.54cm)
Size Waistline Thigh Hips Length
29 97cm/38.18inch 61cm/24.01inch 115cm/45.27inch 55cm/21.65inch
30 98cm/38.58inch 63cm/24.80inch 116cm/45.66inch 56cm/22.04inch
32 100cm/39.37inch 65cm/25.59inch 118cm/46.45inch 57cm/22.44inch
34 102cm/40.15inch 67cm/26.37inch 120cm/47.24inch 58cm/22.83inch
36 104cm/40.94inch 69cm/27.16inch 122cm/48.03inch 59cm/23.22inch
38 105cm/41.33inch 71cm/27.95inch 124cm/48.81inch 60cm/23.62inch
40 106cm/41.73inch 73cm/28.74inch 126cm/49.60inch 61cm/24.01inch
42 108cm/42.51inch 75cm/29.52inch 128cm/50.39inch 62cm/24.40inch
Notes:

1,The real color of the item may be slightly different from the pictures shown on website caused

by many factors such as brightness of your monitor and light brightness.

2,Please allow slight ( 3cm)manual measurement deviation for the data.

3,Following pictures for reference only, the actual color and pattern of the item might be slightly different from pictures,in kind mainly!

Product Code
APPMEN-S-ARMY-CUEBF469096B1B78E01
Color
Brown
Size
36
Material
Cotton
Gender
Men
Product Dimension (In CM)
60x54x1
International Product
World Store